Recommended Readings

Below is a selection of resources on practices that use a trauma-informed and gender-specific lens. Topics include assessment, treatment, training, cultural awareness, and implementation of trauma-informed practice. The list is not meant to be exhaustive, but rather serve as an introduction and overview of key issues and perspectives. If you are interested in a more complete listing of grey and academic literature, please contact the BC Centre of Excellence for Women's Health.

For full versions of academic research articles not available on-line, we encourage you to e-mail requests for electronic reprints (e.g., text files, PDFs, faxed copies) to the lead author.

1. Bride, B. E., Hatcher, S. S., & Humble, M. N. (2009). Trauma training, trauma practices, and secondary traumatic stress among substance abuse counselors. Traumatology, 15(2), 96-105.
In their survey of 225 alcohol and drug counsellors, the authors found that most substance abuse treatment counsellors are at risk for secondary trauma, have not had adequate training to work with traumatized populations, and have experienced some symptoms of secondary trauma.

Link to Sage Publications Abstract »

2. Covington, S. S. (2008). Women and addiction: A trauma-informed approach. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Suppl. 5, 377-385.
This article offers a comprehensive analysis of the trauma-informed practice for women with addictions and a trauma history. Covington provides the theoretical framework for working with women and addictions, and information about the Women’s Integrated Treatment (WIT) model, a manualized curriculum working with women and girls.

Link to Article »

3. Elliot, D. E., Bjelajac, P., Fallot, R., Markoff, L. S., & Glover Reed, B. (2005). Trauma-informed or trauma-denied: Principles and implementation of trauma-informed services for women. Journal of Community Psychology, 33(4), 461–477.
These researchers from the Women, Co-occurring Disorders and Violence Study review the findings from nine different sites and five years of data. In this landmark article, they discuss the need for and benefits of trauma-informed services and offer up 10 principles for implementation into practice.

Link to Wiley Abstract »

4. Fallot, R. D., & Harris, M. (2002). The Trauma Recovery and Empowerment Model (TREM): Conceptual and practical issues in a group intervention for women. Community Mental Health Journal, 38(6), 475-485.
The Trauma Recovery and Empowerment Model (TREM) is an intervention model designed for working with women trauma survivors with co-occurring disorders. The TREM manual is used in group interventions and draws from the authors findings in their involvement with the Women, Co-occurring Disorders and Violence Study.

Link to Springer Abstract »

5. Fearday, F. L., & Cape, A. L. (2004). A voice for traumatized women: Inclusion and mutual support. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 27(3), 258-265.
This paper describes strategies for including peer-run support in treatment programs for women who have co-occurring disorders and a history of violence. The authors present both the perspectives of women who have participated in peer-run groups and the research data that supports their use.

Link to PubMed Abstract »

6. Hopper, E.K., Bassuk, E.L., & Olivet, J. (2010). Shelter from the storm: Trauma-informed care in homelessness services settings. The Open Health Services and Policy Journal, 3, 80-100.
The authors provide an extensive review of the literature on trauma-informed care, compare various descriptions, and offer a consensus-based definition. Further, they discuss specific examples of trauma-informed programs, highlight helpful resources, and make recommendations for implementing trauma-informed practices.

Link to Article »

7. Krejci, J., Margolin, J., Rowland, M., & Wetzell, C. (2008). Integrated group treatment of women's substance abuse and trauma. Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery, 3(3/4), 263-283.
Drawing on the research showing the value of integrating services for women with substance abuse and trauma, the authors present a model for working in this way. They outline the multi-pronged approach, and suggest the core competencies required of the clinicians who deliver it.

Link to InformaWorld Abstract »

8. Lavallee, L. F., & Poole, J. M. (2010). Beyond recovery: Colonization, health and healing for Indigenous people in Canada. International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction, 8(2), 271-281.
The healing practices of Indigenous people in Canada are holistic, and the recovery process must take history, healing practices and the effects of colonization into account. The authors argue that we must expand our limited notions of recovery and practice as it pertains to the health of Indigenous people.

Link to Article »

9. Miller, D. (2002). Addictions and trauma recovery: An integrated approach. The Psychiatric Quarterly, 73(2), 157-170.
The Addictions and Trauma Recover Integration Model (ATRIUM) is an integrated model developed for simultaneously working with addictions and trauma-based mental health issues. Using a cognitive-behavioral and relational approach, this model focuses on mind, body and spiritual health.

Link to Article on Springer »

10. Morrissey, J. P., Jackson, E. W., Ellis, A. R., Amaro, H., Brown, V. B., & Najavits, L. M. (2005). Twelve-month outcomes of trauma-informed interventions for women with co-occurring disorders. Psychiatric Services, 56(10), 1213-1222.

This is a report on 12-month outcomes following integrated, trauma-informed treatment in one of the Women, Co-occurring Disorders and Violence Study sites. Analysis of the data showed that integrated treatment was more effective for women with a history of violence and co-occurring disorders than the usual-care group. Objectives, methods and results are discussed in full.

Link to Article »

11. Najavits, L. M. (2000). Training clinicians in the Seeking Safety treatment protocol for posttraumatic stress disorder and substance abuse. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 18(3), 83-98.
Many programs that serve women who have co-occurring disorders and a history of violence use the Seeking Safety curriculum as part of their treatment model. Here, the authors offer concrete suggestions for training and supervising clinicians in using the model.

Link to Article on Seeking Safety website »

12. Poole, N., & Pearce, D. (2005). Seeking Safety, An integrated model for women experiencing post traumatic stress disorder and substance abuse: A pilot project of the Victoria Women's Sexual Assault Centre, Evaluation Report. Victoria, BC: Victoria Women's Sexual Assault Centre. This evaluation of the Seeking Safety model as implemented by the Victoria Women’s Sexual Assault Centre and the Vancouver Island Health Authority Addictions Services in 2003 found benefits for participants from the intervention related to: reducing isolation and stigma, creating accessibility and safety, learning to understand and manage symptoms and developing hope, confidence and service connections to heal further.
13. Poole, N. & Urquhart (2009). Discussion guide: Trauma-informed approaches in addictions treatment. Gendering the National Framework Series (Vol. 1). Vancouver, BC: British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women’s Health.
This 12-page discussion guide (2009) is intended to stimulate further conversation on addressing coexisting trauma, mental health and substance use problems experienced by girls and women.

Link to Guide »


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