Recommended Readings

Below is a selection of key resources on developing trauma-informed services and organizations. The list is not meant to be exhaustive, but rather serve as an introduction and overview of key issues and perspectives. If you are interested in a more complete listing of grey and academic literature, please contact the BC Centre of Excellence for Women's Health.

For full versions of academic research articles not available on-line, we encourage you to e-mail requests for electronic reprints (e.g., text files, PDFs, faxed copies) to the lead author.

1. Amaro, H., McGraw, S., Larson, M. J., Lopez, L., Nieves, R., & Marshall, B. (2005). Boston
Consortium of Services for Families in Recovery: A trauma-informed intervention model for women's alcohol and drug addiction treatment. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 22(3), 95-119.

This group of service agencies collaborated to develop and implement trauma-informed services in five of their addiction treatment programs for women who were largely Latin and African American. They describe the program components and implementation processes.

Link to Article »

2. Bloom, S. L., & Yanosy-Sreedhar, S. (2008). The Sanctuary Model of trauma-informed organizational change. Reclaiming Children & Youth, 17(3), 48-53.
Although this model was originally designed for children and youth, the principles and methods offered here have informed the thinking and approaches of all services that work with those affected by trauma and violence.

Link to Article »

3. Clark, C., Young, M. S., Jackson, E., Graeber, C., Mazelis, R., Kammerer, N., et al. (2008). Consumer perceptions of integrated trauma-informed services among women with co-occurring disorders. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 35(1), 71-90. This evaluation instrument was developed during the Women Co-occurring Disorders and Violence study as a way to measure consumer perceptions of the services they receive. It was determined that this instrument was valid, reliable and sensitive in assessing four areas of consumer perspectives on: choice in services, services integration, cultural identity and trauma-informed assessment.

Link to SpringerLink Abstract »

4. Elliot, D. E., Bjelajac, P., Fallot, R., Markoff, L. S., & Glover Reed, B. (2005). Trauma-informed or trauma-denied: Principles and implementation of trauma-informed services for women. Journal of Community Psychology, 33(4), 461–477.
These researchers from the Women, Co-occurring Disorders and Violence Study review the findings from nine different sites and five years of data. In this landmark  article, they discuss the need for and benefits of trauma-informed services and offer up 10 principles for implementation in service delivery.

Link to Wiley Abstract »

5. Finkelstein, N., VandeMark, N., Fallot, R., Brown, V., Cadiz, S., & Heckman, J. (2004). Enhancing substance abuse recovery through integrated trauma treatment. Sarasota, FL: National Trauma Consortium for the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.
The authors explore provider concerns of trauma-informed services and describe an emphasis on stabilization, safety and understanding the links between trauma, substance use and mental health issues, not on retelling experiences of trauma and violence. They describe four models of first-stage trauma treatment.

Link to NTCCSAT document »

6. Hopper, E. K., Bassuk, E. L., & Olivet, J. (2010). Shelter from the storm: Trauma-informed care in homelessness services settings. The Open Health Services and Policy Journal, 3, 80-100 This article explores the evidence base for trauma informed care within homelessness service settings. The authors clarify the definition of trauma-informed care, discuss key aspects of it, review case examples of programs implementing TIC, and discuss implications for practice, programming, policy, and research.
7. Madsen, L. H., Blitz, L. V., McCorkle, D., & Panzer, P. G. (2003). Sanctuary in a domestic violence shelter: A team approach to healing. Psychiatric Quarterly, 74(2), 155-171.
This article describes the application of the Sanctuary model for survivors of violence and trauma in a domestic violence shelter. The authors describe why the model was chosen, the process of implementing it, and the effects of both clients and staff. Some of the trauma-informed practices include emotional safety, collaboration between staff and service users, and cultural competency.

Link to Article »

8. Markoff, L. S., Reed, B. G., Fallot, R. D., Elliott, D. E., & Bjelajac, P. (2005). Implementing trauma-informed alcohol and other drug and mental health services for women: Lessons learned in a multisite demonstration project. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75(4 (Print)), 525-539.
Examining findings and data from nine sites as part of the Women, Co-Occurring Disorders, and Violence Study, this article makes recommendations for implementing trauma-informed services and provides consensus-based guidelines for best practices.

Link to Wiley Abstract »

9. Markoff, L. S., Finkelstein, N., Kammerer, N., Kreiner, P., & Prost, C. A. (2005). Relational systems change: Implementing a model of change in integrating services for women with substance abuse and mental health disorders and histories of trauma. Joumal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 32(2), 227-240.
A "relational systems change " model is described - developed by the Institute for Health and Recovery, and implemented in Massachusetts from 1998-2002 to facilitate systems change to support the delivery of integrated and trauma-informed services for women with co-occurring substance use and mental health problems and histories of violence and empirical evidence of resulting systems changes.

IHR used relational strategies to facilitate systems change within and across 3 systems levels from local to state. They show that a highly collaborative, inclusive, and facilitated change process can effect services integration within agencies, strengthen integration within a regional network of agencies, and foster state support for services integration.

Link to Article »

10. Van Wyk, L., & Bradley, N. (2007). A braided recovery: Integrating trauma programming at a women's substance use treatment centre. In N. Poole & L. Greaves (Eds.), Highs and lows: Canadian perspectives on women and substance use. Toronto, ON: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. This book chapter summarizes details the work of Jean Tweed Centre in Toronto as they implemented trauma-informed practices and trauma-specific programming.

Link to Highs & Lows »

11. Wesley-Esquimaux, C. C., & Snowball, A. (2010). Viewing violence, mental illness and addiction through a wise practices lens. International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction, 8(2), 390-407.
Wesley-Esquimaux and Snowball present the “wise practices” model of healing, which is based on sacred Aboriginal values, and argue that it should sit alongside “best practices” model. Recovering and using traditional healing traditions will return strength and self-efficacy to Aboriginal people.

Link to Article »


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